Physically, if the corner is very sharp, the material will be damaged by the high strains. A brittle material may crack; a ductile material may yield. While it may sound alarming, such damage will only cause a local redistribution of the stresses in most cases. As seen from the perspective of the surrounding structure, the effect is no more dramatic than that of somewhat changing the fillet radius. High, very localized stresses will only be a true problem if the loading is cyclic, which creates a risk for fatigue.
The worst conceivable geometrical singularity is the one caused by a crack. A crack can be seen as a 180° re-entrant corner, so many aspects of the corner singularity are also applicable here. When a crack is present in a finite element model, it is typically an area of focus within the study.
The stress field around the crack tip is known from analytical solutions, at least for linear elasticity and plasticity under some assumptions. Computing the stress field through finite element analysis, however, can be difficult due to the singularity. Fortunately, it is usually not necessary to study the details at the crack tip. When determining the stress intensity factor, for example, you can use either the J-integral or energy release rate approach. These methods make use of global quantities far from the crack tip, so that the details at the singularity become less important.
I understand you are looking for information on performing a fracture analysis in Nastran In-CAD. We do not have a fracture mechanics module in Nastran In-CAD that would allow the propagation of cracks. Can you describe what the problem your trying to investigate? Maybe there is another way to get the results you are looking for, or we can generate an IdeaStation post.
We are specifically looking for crack propagation. Since I haven't performed this sort of analysis for a customer before, I was hoping to find as much information on the subject as I can. The customer is lookng to follow NASA-STD-(I)-5019 Fracture Control Requirements for Spaceflight Hardware. I am tasked with determining if this is a Nastran capability or if we need to look at purchasing NASGRO® Fracture Mechanics and Fatigue Crack Growth Analysis Software.
Steam turbine blades are highly subjected to water droplet erosion (WDE) caused by high energy impingement of liquid water droplets. However, most of the published research on this wear phenomenon is performed on laboratory test rigs, instead of addressing WDE of actual steam turbine blades. In this work, the progression of erosion on the surface of ex-service low pressure steam turbine blades was investigated using scanning electron microscopy. The erosion appearance and mechanisms are compared with laboratory test rig results that are carried out using a rotating disk rig according to ASTM G73 standard. Initial and advanced erosion stages could be observed on the steam turbine blades. Similar to the WDE rig coupons, initial pits and cracks were preceded by blade surface roughening through the formation of asperities and depressions. In addition, it was also observed that the twist angle of the turbine blade around its diagonal, is an important parameter that influences its WDE. Twist angle has an effect on: impact angle, erosion appearance, impact speed, and the affected area. Furthermore, according to the current experimental results, multi-ray rig erosion test results are considered the closest simulation to the actual ex-service blade in terms of damage appearance.
The operation of a nuclear power plant with a hydrogen energy complex and a constantly operating low capacity additional steam turbine makes it possible to improve the reliability of the power supply to the needs of a nuclear power plant in the face of major systemic accidents. In this case, the additional steam turbine is always in operation. This determines the alternation of the operating conditions of the additional steam turbine, and, at the same time, the alternation of the loads attributable to the rotor, which affects its working life. The aim of the article is to investigate the effect of cyclic loads on the number of cycles before the destruction of the most important elements of the rotor of an additional steam turbine due to the alternation of operating conditions when entering the peak load and during unloading at night. The article demonstrates that the values of the stress range intensity index for the most important elements of the rotor of an additional steam turbine lie in the area of the threshold values of the fatigue failure diagram. For this region, an increase in the frequency of loading is associated with the phenomenon of closure of the fatigue crack and, as a consequence, a possible slowing of its growth. An approximate number of cycles before failure for the most loaded element of the rotor is obtained.
Loss of utility plant availability as a result of failure-causing cracks in steam turbine blades makes early detection of this problem critical. An Electric Power Research Institute survey, conducted as part of project RP 1266-24, indicated that 72% of turbine blade failures in fossil power plants occur in low-pressure (LP) turbines with half of all blade failures occurring in the last two blade stages (L-0 and L-1 rows). Failures are generally associated with blade tailing edges and root areas. Project RP 1266-24 also found that 79% of the blade problems in LP turbines were cracks. A turbine design of particularmore » concern has been the Westinghouse Building Block (B.B.) 73. Reinhart and Associates has successfully inspected seven in-place B.B. 73 units for six utilities during the past 3 yr, as well as several disassembled turbines of other manufacturers and designs. These examinations consisted of visual and eddy-current examinations of the blade roots and trailing edges. The in-place inspections were performed using prototype manipulation devices to gain access to the blades through the hand holes. The only disassembly required to gain access for the examinations was the removal of the man-way covers on the main shell and the hand-hole covers on the outer cylinder covering the L-0 and L-1 blade rows.« less
Steam turbine blades in power generation equipment are made from martensitic stainless steels having high strength, good toughness and corrosion resistance. However, these steels are susceptible to pitting which can promote early failures of blades in the turbines, particularly in the low pressure dry/wet areas by stress corrosion and corrosion fatigue. Presence of tensile residual stresses is known to accelerate failures whereas compressive stresses can help in delaying failures. Shot peening has been employed as an effective tool to induce compressive residual stresses which offset a part of local surface tensile stresses in the surface layers of components. Maintaining local stresses at stress raisers, such as pits formed during service, below a threshold level can help in preventing the initiation microcracks and failures. The thickness of the layer in compression will, however, depend of the shot peening parameters and should extend below the bottom of corrosion pits. The magnitude of surface compressive drops progressively during service exposure and over time the effectiveness of shot peening is lost making the material susceptible to micro-crack initiation once again. Measurement and monitoring of surface residual stress therefore becomes important for assessing residual life of components in service. This paper shows the applicability of surface stress monitoring to life assessment of steam turbine blade material based on data generated in laboratory on residual surface stress measurements in relation to fatigue exposure. An empirical model is proposed to calculate the remaining life of shot peened steam turbine blades in service.
The specific features of existing designs of moisture separators-steam reheaters (MSRs) and experience gained with using them at nuclear power plants are considered. Main factors causing damage to and failures of MSRs are described: nonuniform distribution of wet steam flow among the separation modules, breakthrough of moisture through the separator (and sometimes also through the steam reheater), which may lead to the occurrence of additional thermal stresses and, hence, to thermal-fatigue damage to or stress corrosion cracking of metal. MSR failure results in a less efficient operation of the turbine unit as a whole and have an adverse effect on the reliability of the low-pressure cylinder's last-stage blades. By the time the design service life of the SPP-500-1 MSRs had been exhausted in power units equipped with RBMK-1000 reactors, the number of damages inflicted to both the separation part and to the pipework and heating surface tubes was so large, that a considerable drop of MSR effectiveness and turbine unit efficiency as a whole occurred. The design of the upgraded separation part used in the SPP-500-1 MSR at the Leningrad NPP is described and its effectiveness is shown, which was confirmed by tests. First, efforts taken to achieve more uniform distribution of moisture content over the perimeter and height of steam space downstream of the separation modules and to bring it to values close to the design ones were met with success. Second, no noticeable effect of the individual specific features of separation modules on the moisture content was revealed. Recommendations on elaborating advanced designs of moisture separators-steam reheaters are given: an MSR arrangement in which the separator is placed under or on the side from the steam reheater; axial admission of wet steam for ensuring its uniform distribution among the separation modules; inlet chambers with an extended preliminary separation system and devices for uniformly distributing steam flows in the
With the development of capacity and efficiency of coal-fired thermal power plant, the length of Low Pressure (LP) last-stage blade of steam turbine became longer. Therefore, the design static stress of blade gets closer or even higher than the yield strength of material. Because of the special operation condition of LP last stage blade, the stress corrosion crack of 12Cr-Ni-Mo-V-N Martensite stainless steel may happen especially at the root of the blade where designed the highest static stress. In this paper, the stress corrosion behavior of 12Cr-Ni-Mo-V-N Martensite stainless steels used for steam turbine LP last stage blade in 3vol% NaCl solution was studied, the constant stress is about 95%, 85%, 65% and 35% of yield stress respectively and the test was lasted for 3000 hours, the stress corrosion behavior was studied and then, the effect of shot penning strengthen for anti-stress corrosion property of 12Cr-Ni-Mo-V-N Martensitic steel was studied. The results showed that the purity of steel affects the stress corrosion behavior huge especially at the high and medium stress condition. The shot penning cannot enhances the anti-stress corrosion property of the 12Cr-Ni-Mo-V-N steel at high tensile constant stress condition, however it will make the anti-stress corrosion property better when the stress is low. 2b1af7f3a8